Geological resources for energy: Oil & Gas, Non-conventional (Shale gas, Oil shale..), CO2 storage
The world energy consumption is mainly composed (more than 85%) of
fossil resources (coal, oil and gas). Those resources contributed to
the large expansion of our modern civilization. But in the 21st
century, the Oil & Gas industry faces two new constraints that are
going to create large changes in the domain of Energy. The first
constraint is the finite volume of conventional fossil reserves and the
fact that the world realizes that those limits are approaching. A
first symptom of this was the large increase of the oil prices in 2008.
This situation created an unexpected development of non-conventional
resources that modify strongly and in a very short time the energy mix
first in the US but more generally worldwide.
A second constraint is climate change. The understanding, in the second
part of the 20th century, of the CO2 effect on the global warming leads
to new policies that tend to limit the accumulation of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere (Kyoto protocol, environmental taxes...). This new
constraint creates the condition for a faster shift in the energy mix
but also it pushes the development of geological CO2 storage. The
development of this technique could contribute to limit the CO2
emission during the energy transition phase. Regulation rules are still
on discussion but some pilots are running around the world to
demonstrate the potential and the feasibility of this technique.
Yannick PEYSSON - Researcher
IFP Energies nouvelles