& Yannis Cuypers
This course is shared with ENSTA ParisTech engineer’s program
The development of strict environmental regulations, renewable
energies and climatic changes provides new challenges for coastal
engineering. The increase of industrial activities along the coast
demands new generation of coastal models. These high resolution models
should be able to reproduce the coastal circulation at relatively small
scale to quantify accurately the transport and the mixing of pollutants
or biogeochemical species for instance.
The aim of this course is to give students advanced knowledge on the
main dynamical processes which control the coastal circulation,
especially the tidal flows, the wind induced circulation and the
density driven flows such a fluvial plumes and coastal currents. The
goal is to provide students with expertise in the complexity of real
processes and a critical approach towards their numerical modeling.
1. Introduction, turbulent dynamics of coastal flows (A. Stegner )
New challenges for coastal hydrodynamic: scientific issues, numerical modeling and high resolution monitoring.
Scaling, Dimensionless numbers, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), turbulent scheme, turbulent boundary layers.
2. Non-rotating shallow-water dynamics (A. Stegner)
Non-rotating shallow water equations, Froude number, sub-critical / super-critical transition, bottom friction.
Application: hydraulic control of internal flows in straits and narrows.
3. Rotating shallow-water dynamics (A. Stegner)
Rotating shallow water equations, Rossby and Burger numbers, vorticity
and potential vorticity, baroclinic-barotropic motion, internal gravity
waves, Kelvin waves.
Application: wave signature on surface drifters trajectories, coastal Kelvin waves .
4. Tidal forcing (Y. Cuypers)
Astronomical forcing, ocean response, harmonic decomposition, tidal resonance, tidal range power plant.
Application: tidal resonance of bays or estuaries.
5. Steady wind forcing (Y.Cuypers)
Ekman boundary layer and Ekman transport, two-layer idealization, upwelling, downwelling. mixed layer and Langmuir cells.
Application: upwelling and coastal current adjustment.
6. Unsteady or non-uniform wind forcing (A.Stegner / Y. Cuypers)
Ekman pumping induced by topographic winds, unsteady upwelling response
Application: oceanic eddy induced by non-uniform wind generation.
7. River plumes, bulges and coastal currents (A.Stegner )
River outflow, impact of rotation, anticyclonic bulge, coastal current and bathymetric impact.
Application: Unsteady bulge of a river outflow.
8. Case studies and practical analysis
is a CNRS
Researcher at the Dynamic Meteorology Lab. (LMD) and Associate
Professor at Ecole Polytechnique. His research domains are: Topographic
impact on coastal dynamics - Small-scale and non-hydrostatic inertial
instabilities - Von-Karman street in the atmosphere and the ocean,
cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry - Gravity-wave emission induced by
geostrophic adjustment in the atmosphere and the oceans. Wave mean-flow
interactions. - Dynamics of large-scale and long-lived vortices in the
ocean and the Jovian atmosphere.
is Associate professor at UPMC, researcher at LOCEAN. D